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Exploring Stitches For Grade 2 Perineal Tears

Welcome to our article on Grade 2 perineal tear stitches! This topic is often discussed in hushed tones, but it’s important for all women, especially those who have recently given birth, to understand what these stitches are and why they are necessary. In this article, we will dive into what Grade 2 perineal tears are, how many stitches are typically needed, and what you can expect during the healing process. So, let’s shed some light on this important topic and dispel any fears or misconceptions you may have.

When it comes to the birthing process, there are a lot of things that expecting mothers need to prepare for and consider. One of the things that many women may not think about is the possibility of having a perineal tear during delivery. However, this is a very common occurrence and can happen in up to 9 out of 10 vaginal births. Depending on the severity of the tear, it may require stitches in order to heal properly. In this article, we will discuss what a grade 2 perineal tear is and how many stitches may be needed to repair it.

What is a Grade 2 Perineal Tear?

A perineal tear is a tear that occurs in the perineum, which is the area between the vagina and anus. It can happen during the pushing stage of labor, especially if the baby’s head is large or the mother has a small vaginal opening. A grade 2 perineal tear is one of the most common types of tears that occur during childbirth. It is also known as a second-degree tear.

Grade 2 perineal tears are categorized by the depth of the tear. This type of tear goes through the skin and the muscle of the perineum, but does not reach the anal sphincter (the muscle responsible for controlling bowel movements). They can vary in size and severity, with some being small and superficial and others being larger and more significant. In some cases, a grade 2 tear may involve tearing of the vaginal wall, making it an even more complicated injury to repair.

The severity of a grade 2 perineal tear will determine the recommended treatment, including the number of stitches that may be needed to repair it. It is essential to get a proper evaluation from a healthcare professional to determine the extent of the tear and what steps should be taken for proper healing.

How Many Stitches are Needed for a Grade 2 Perineal Tear?

The number of stitches needed to repair a grade 2 perineal tear can vary depending on the size and location of the tear. Typically, anywhere from 2 to 4 stitches may be required for a smaller tear, while a larger tear may need up to 8-10 stitches. The doctor or midwife performing the repair will determine the exact number of stitches needed based on the severity of the tear and the patient’s individual needs.

In addition to the number of stitches, the type of stitches used may also vary. In most cases, dissolvable stitches will be used, but in some instances, non-dissolvable stitches may be necessary. This is especially true if the tear involves the vaginal wall, as this area may need extra support to heal properly.

The stitches used for a grade 2 perineal tear are typically similar to those used for other types of wounds. They are small, thin strands of material that are secured in place to hold the skin and muscle together while it heals. After a few weeks, the body will naturally dissolve the stitches, and they will fall out on their own. In some cases, they may need to be removed by a healthcare professional if they have not dissolved entirely after a few weeks.

Caring for a Grade 2 Perineal Tear

Caring for a grade 2 perineal tear is essential for proper healing and to minimize the risk of infection. Here are a few tips to help with recovery:

  • Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions: Make sure to follow any specific instructions provided by your doctor or midwife for caring for your tear. This may include keeping the area clean and dry, using ice packs to reduce swelling, and avoiding strenuous activities.
  • Take pain medication as prescribed: It is normal to experience discomfort and pain after giving birth, especially if you have a perineal tear. Your healthcare provider may prescribe pain medication to help ease the discomfort. Make sure to take it as directed.
  • Avoid sexual activity: It is essential to give your body time to heal before engaging in sexual activity. Your healthcare provider will advise when it is safe to resume such activities.
  • Eat a healthy diet: A healthy diet can help promote healing and prevent constipation, which can be painful for a mother with a perineal tear. Make sure to eat a well-balanced diet that includes plenty of fiber-rich foods to help keep bowel movements regular.
  • Stay hydrated: Drinking plenty of water is crucial for promoting healing and preventing constipation. Aim for at least 8-10 glasses of water per day.

It is essential to remember that every woman’s body is different, and healing times may vary. Some women may feel completely back to normal within a few weeks, while others may take longer to recover fully. If you are concerned or experiencing any complications, make sure to reach out to your healthcare provider for guidance and support.


A grade 2 perineal tear is a common occurrence during childbirth and may require stitches to heal properly. The number of stitches needed can vary depending on the severity of the tear, but in most cases, 2 to 4 stitches are sufficient. It is essential to follow your healthcare provider’s recommendations for care and to reach out for additional support if needed.

If you are an expecting mother, make sure to discuss the possibility of a perineal tear with your healthcare provider. They can provide guidance on how to prepare for this and other potential outcomes during delivery. With proper care and attention, a grade 2 perineal tear can heal well, allowing you to focus on enjoying your new little one.

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In conclusion, the amount of stitches used for Grade 2 perineal tears in women after childbirth can vary depending on various factors such as the extent and location of the tear, as well as individual healing capabilities. While studies have shown that a higher number of stitches may lead to increased pain and discomfort in the immediate postpartum period, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully assess and determine the appropriate number of stitches needed for optimal healing and long-term outcomes. Additionally, proper postpartum care and support can greatly aid in the healing process and reduce any potential complications. It is crucial for expectant mothers to have open communication with their healthcare provider regarding any concerns or questions about perineal tearing and the suturing process. With careful management and personalized care, women can confidently heal from Grade 2 perineal tears and focus on enjoying the precious moments with their new baby.

Unleashing Your Writing Potential Choosing Topics With Ease

Writing can be a daunting task, especially when it comes to deciding on what topics to write about. Whether you’re an experienced writer or just starting out, coming up with fresh and compelling ideas is key to producing engaging content. So how do you choose the perfect writing idea? In this article, we will explore tips and techniques for finding inspiration, crafting interesting topics, and overcoming writer’s block. By the end, you’ll have a better understanding of how to navigate through the sea of writing possibilities and select the best themes for your writing.

Are you struggling to come up with ideas for your next writing project? Do you find yourself staring at a blank page, unsure of what topic to tackle? Don’t worry, you’re not alone. Every writer has faced the daunting task of having to come up with something new and interesting to write about. Whether you are a professional writer or just someone who enjoys writing as a hobby, finding the right topics to write about can be a challenging but essential part of the writing process.

How to Choose Writing Ideas

The first step in choosing a writing topic is to determine your audience or purpose. Are you writing for a specific publication, a targeted group of readers, or for personal expression? Once you have a clear understanding of your audience and purpose, it makes it easier to narrow down potential writing ideas.

Another helpful tip is to consider your interests, hobbies, and passions. Writing about something you are genuinely interested in will not only make the writing process more enjoyable, but it will also ensure that you have a unique perspective on the topic.

Additionally, keep an eye out for current events, trends, or controversies that may spark ideas for writing. Paying attention to the world around you and staying informed on various topics can provide endless inspiration for writing.

Finding Inspiration for Writing

Inspiration can come from anywhere – a conversation with a friend, a beautiful view, a news headline, or even a dream. As a writer, it’s important to always be open to new ideas and experiences, as they can serve as the perfect starting point for your writing.

Reading is another excellent way to find inspiration for writing. Reading books, articles, or even social media posts by other writers can help stimulate your creativity and inspire new ideas. Just be sure not to plagiarize – while it’s perfectly acceptable to use others’ work as inspiration, it’s crucial to put your unique spin on any topic you write about.

Traveling and exploring new places can also provide a wealth of writing ideas. Immersing yourself in new cultures, meeting new people, and experiencing different environments can give you a fresh perspective and spark creativity in your writing.

Tips for Deciding on Writing Topics

Here are a few tips to help you narrow down your list of potential writing topics:

  • Do some research: If you have a few broad ideas in mind, do some research on each topic to see if there is enough material to write about. This will also help you determine if the topic has already been extensively covered, and if so, how you can approach it from a unique angle.
  • Consider your expertise: Another way to narrow down writing topics is to consider your expertise in a particular subject. Is there a topic you are knowledgeable about that you can share with others through your writing?
  • Ask for feedback: Sometimes, getting an outsider’s opinion can be helpful in deciding on a writing topic. Ask friends, family, or even other writers for their thoughts on your potential ideas.
  • Find a unique angle: Even if a topic has been widely covered, you can still find a unique angle to make it your own. Think about how you can add a new twist or perspective to a well-known topic.
  • Write about what interests you: As mentioned earlier, writing about something you are genuinely interested in will make the writing process more enjoyable and authentic. So, don’t be afraid to follow your curiosity and write about what truly interests you.

Brainstorming Writing Subjects

One of the most effective ways to come up with writing ideas is through brainstorming. This process involves generating a list of potential topics without judgment or censoring your thoughts. Here are a few helpful tips for productive brainstorming:

  • Write down everything that comes to mind, even if it seems silly or irrelevant.
  • Use visual aids like mind maps or charts to organize your thoughts and make connections between different ideas.
  • Set a timer and write down as many ideas as you can within a specific timeframe.
  • Collaborate with others – bouncing ideas off someone else can bring a fresh perspective and help generate new ideas.
  • Don’t be afraid to revisit old ideas – sometimes, a previously discarded idea can be reworked into something new and exciting.

Crafting Compelling Writing Topics

When crafting your writing topics, keep in mind that it should be clear, concise, and attention-grabbing. Here are a few tips for creating compelling writing topics:

  • Use captivating language: Avoid generic or bland titles. Instead, use descriptive and engaging words that will pique the reader’s interest.
  • Incorporate keywords: If you are writing for a specific publication or website, be sure to include relevant keywords in your title. This will not only help with SEO but also attract the right audience for your topic.
  • Make it specific: A broad topic can be overwhelming for readers. Be sure to specify what aspect or angle you will be focusing on in your writing.
  • Consider the tone: The tone of your writing topic should reflect the tone of your piece. If you are writing a humorous article, your title should be lighthearted and witty.
  • Think about the purpose: Your writing topic should align with the purpose of your writing. Is it informative, persuasive, or entertaining? Be sure that your title accurately reflects the tone and purpose of your writing.

Generating Writing Prompts

If you’re struggling to come up with a specific topic, writing prompts can provide a helpful starting point. A writing prompt is a short phrase or sentence that suggests a topic for writing. You can find writing prompts online, in writing books, or even create your own.

One prompt that may inspire you is “what should you write about?” This prompt encourages you to think about your interests, passions, expertise, and current events to come up with a writing topic that is unique and compelling.

Navigating Writer’s Block

Even the most experienced writers face writer’s block from time to time. If you find yourself stuck and unable to come up with a writing topic, don’t panic. Here are a few strategies to help you overcome writer’s block:

  • Take a break: Sometimes, the best thing you can do is step away from your writing for a while. Take a walk, do some yoga, or engage in any activity that helps clear your mind.
  • Free write: Set a timer for 10-15 minutes and write non-stop without editing or censoring your thoughts. This exercise can help get your creative juices flowing.
  • Read: Reading can help you get out of your head and into someone else’s world. It can also give you ideas for your writing.
  • Talk to someone: Conversations with friends, family, or other writers can spark new ideas and break through writer’s block. Bounce ideas off someone else, or simply have a casual conversation to get your mind off writing for a while.
  • Try a different format: If you usually write articles, try writing a poem or short story. Changing up the format can help get your creative juices flowing.

Discovering Writing Inspiration

Last but not least, the key to finding the right topics to write about is to stay inspired. Keep a notebook or journal to jot down any ideas, thoughts, or observations that may spark writing ideas. Attend writing workshops or conferences, read books by your favorite authors, and surround yourself with other creatives who can inspire you. And don’t forget to take breaks and do things that bring you joy – a happy and fulfilled mind is a creative one.

Selecting Writing Themes

In conclusion, choosing the right topics to write about takes time, effort, and creativity. Whether you’re a seasoned writer or just starting, it’s essential to keep an open mind, embrace new experiences, and find inspiration in everyday life. Use these strategies and tips to generate unique and compelling writing topics that will engage your readers and showcase your writing skills.

And if you’re still struggling to come up with ideas, remember this – sometimes, the best topics to write about are the ones that scare you, challenge you, or make you feel vulnerable. So don’t be afraid to step out of your comfort zone and push your boundaries – it may lead you to some of your most powerful and impactful writing yet.


What Should You Write About?

In conclusion, the process of choosing what topics to write about can be both exciting and daunting. However, by implementing various techniques such as brainstorming, exploring personal experiences, and using writing prompts, writers can overcome writer’s block and find inspiration for their writing. It is essential to consider the audience, purpose, and relevance when selecting writing ideas. With practice and dedication, writers can craft compelling and meaningful writing topics that engage readers and bring their stories to life. Remember, inspiration can be found in anything, and the key is to keep an open mind and let creativity flow. So don’t be afraid to try different approaches and experiment with diverse writing themes. With these tips and strategies, writers can confidently embark on their writing journey and produce quality content that resonates with their readers.

How To Write The Title Of An Article In An Essay

When it comes to essay writing, the title of an article is usually placed at the top of the page, centered. In order to format the title correctly, it is important to understand a few things about it.

The title should be capitalized and should include the name of the article, the author’s name, and the date the article was published. For example:

"The Importance of Being Earnest" by Oscar Wilde

If the article is from a magazine or online, the name of the publication should also be included. For example:

"The Best of Times, the Worst of Times" by Sarah Vowell from The New Yorker

If the article is from a website, the name of the website should be included in addition to the date the article was published. For example:

"Why Streaming Services are Killing the Film Industry" by Christopher Campbell on Dec. 3, 2018

It is also important to note that if the title of the article is more than one line, the second and subsequent lines should be indented.

Understanding the Purpose of Including Article Titles in Essays

When writing an essay, it is important to include the title of the article you are referencing. It is important to understand why including the article title is important in an essay. The following are three reasons why including the title of the article is important in an essay.

1. To show that you have read and understood the article

When you include the title of the article in your essay, it shows that you have read and understood the article. This is important, especially if you are writing a critical essay, as it shows that you have done your research.

2. To provide context for your argument

Including the title of the article in your essay provides context for your argument. It shows the reader that you are not just making statements without any evidence to back them up.

3. To credit the original author

When you include the title of the article in your essay, you are also crediting the original author. This is important, as it shows that you respect the work that has been done by the author.

Formatting Article Titles in the Body of an Essay

When writing an essay, the title of the article is usually placed in quotation marks. In the body of the essay, the title is typically followed by the author’s name. Here is an example:

"The Title of the Article" by Author Name

There are a few things to keep in mind when formatting the title of an article in an essay:

-Capitalize the first letter of the title
-Do not use italics or underlining
-Do not put any punctuation at the end of the title

If the title of the article is more than one line, it should be placed in quotation marks and the line breaks should be indicated by using a slash ( "/" ). Here is an example:

"How To Write The Title Of An Article In An Essay/Formatting Article Titles in the Body of an Essay"

by Author Name

Using Quotation Marks for Short Article Titles

How to write the title of an article in an essay

When writing an essay, it is important to include the name of the article within quotation marks. This is to differentiate it from the rest of the text.

For short articles, the title can be placed within the sentence. For example, "In "The New York Times" article "A Call for Papers on the American Revolution"…"

For longer articles, the title can be placed at the beginning of the essay. For example, "The title of the article is "A Call for Papers on the American Revolution"…"

Formatting Italics for Longer Article Titles

Italics are used in writing to emphasize a word or phrase. When used in the title of an article, italics indicate that the word or phrase is the title of the article.

The title of an article should be formatted using italics. The first letter of each word in the title should be capitalized, with the exception of articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. For example, the title of an article, "How to Write the Title of an Article in an Essay Formatting Italics for Longer Article Titles," should be formatted as "How to Write the Title of an Article in an Essay: Formatting Italics for Longer Article Titles."

Following Capitalization Rules for Article Titles

When you are writing an essay, the title of the article is always capitalized. This is because the title is considered to be the name of the work. There are a few specific rules that you need to follow when capitalizing the title of an article.

The first rule is that the title is always capitalized when it is the first word in the title. The second rule is that the title is always capitalized when it is a proper noun. A proper noun is a specific name that is given to a person, place, or thing. The third rule is that the title is always capitalized when it is the last word in the title.

There are a few exceptions to these rules. The title is not always capitalized when it is used in a sentence. The title is also not always capitalized when it is not the first word in a sentence. Additionally, the title is not always capitalized when it is not a proper noun.

When you are writing the title of an article, it is important to follow these rules to ensure that the title is capitalized correctly.

Incorporating Article Titles in In-Text Citations

There are a couple different ways to write the title of an article in an essay. When you are writing an in-text citation, you can either include the full title of the article, or you can use a shortened form.

If you include the full title of the article, you should place it in quotation marks. For example, "How to Write the Title of an Article in an Essay."

If you use a shortened form, you should place the title of the article in italics. For example, "How to Write the Title of an Article in an Essay."

Creating a Works Cited or References Page Entry for Article Titles

When you are writing an essay, it is important to include a works cited or references page that lists the sources you used to write your essay. When you list a source, you must include the full title of the article. In order to create a works cited or references page entry for an article title, you must include the following information:



Journal Name



Date of Publication

Page Numbers

You can find this information at the beginning of an article.

Texas AG Sues Biden Administration Over Title IX Interpretation

Texas AG Sues Biden Administration Over Title IX Interpretation

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The Texas attorney general’s office has filed a lawsuit against the Biden administration, expressing disagreement with its interpretation of Title IX. This federal civil rights law, in effect for over 50 years, was expanded two years ago to include protections against discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. The lawsuit argues that noncompliance with the administration’s interpretation could result in Texas schools losing federal funding.

This legal action highlights a conflict between Texas legislation and the federal law. In 2021, the Biden administration announced that Title IX also applies to LGBTQ students, offering them protection against sex-based discrimination in educational programs and activities.

During the same year, the Texas Legislature passed a law prohibiting transgender students in K-12 public schools from participating in sports teams that correspond to their gender identity. This state law contradicts the interpretation of Title IX by the Biden administration and could potentially jeopardize federal funding for school districts. Furthermore, Senate Bill 15 was passed during this year’s legislative session, expanding the restriction on transgender students to include university-level athletics. Governor Greg Abbott has recently announced his intention to sign the "Save Women’s Sports Bill."

The lawsuit filed by the Texas attorney general’s office criticizes the administration for attempting to impose "transgender" ideology in K-12 schools, colleges, and universities of the state unlawfully. It argues that the misuse of Title IX to threaten the withholding of federal education funds violates state law. The attorney general’s office states that over $6 billion in federal funding allocated to Texas K-12 and higher education institutions could be at risk due to the administration’s guidance.

The lawsuit was initiated by John Scott, the interim attorney general, as Ken Paxton, the previous attorney general, is currently facing suspension and an impeachment trial in the Texas Senate. Paxton had previously expressed disagreement with the Biden administration’s expanded Title IX regulations.

In the landmark case Bostock v. Clayton County in 2020, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits employment discrimination based on sex, extends to protection for gay and transgender workers. As a result, the Biden administration updated the Title IX regulations to align with the Bostock ruling and to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in educational activities and programs.

In April, the Biden administration proposed an amendment that aims to prevent blanket bans that exclude transgender students from participating in sports teams according to their gender identity. This amendment applies to both K-12 schools and universities.

In response to the lawsuit, Johnathan Gooch, the communications director for LGBTQ advocacy group Equality Texas, emphasized the importance of respecting transgender children in schools and treating their pronouns with basic human decency. He questioned whether the attorney general truly wants to convey the message that some children deserve their teacher’s respect while others do not.

The announcement of this lawsuit marks Texas’s 50th legal action against the Biden administration, as noted by the attorney general’s office.

Please note that Equality Texas has provided financial support to The Texas Tribune, a nonprofit and nonpartisan news organization. They have no involvement in the Tribune’s journalism.

Sights And Sounds From The 1st Week Of LeBron James’s New I Promise School For At-Risk Kids In His Hometown Of Akron, Ohio

Sights and Sounds from the 1st Week of LeBron James’s New I Promise School for At-Risk Kids in His Hometown of Akron, Ohio

This article is a part of a series on that showcases the courageous individuals, triumphs, success stories, and acts of kindness that can be found in schools all across America. For more inspiring profiles, please visit

If anyone has the ability to make school an appealing and exciting place, it’s LeBron.

Just by stepping foot into the brand-new I Promise School in Akron, Ohio, one is immediately greeted by an impressive chandelier, a split staircase with elegant curves, and a display of 114 pairs of sneakers worn by LeBron James during his games.

These sneakers, lining the walls of the school’s lobby, set the atmosphere for the 240 at-risk third- and fourth-graders who were fortunate enough to be the first students in this groundbreaking collaboration between NBA superstar LeBron James, his LeBron James Family Foundation, and his hometown of Akron, Ohio. Monday morning marked the beginning of their educational journey at the I Promise School.

The age of these initial students is significant. They are at a crucial point in their young lives, a point that LeBron James himself considers to be a turning point in his own life. He attributes his current achievements and success to the support he received from his fellow student athletes and caring adults, particularly his mother.

Addressing a crowd of over 2,000 individuals, including students, parents, VIPs, and an abundance of media, LeBron stated, "I know exactly the challenges that these 240 kids are facing. I am familiar with the streets they walk on and the hardships they endure, because I have experienced them."

The school has plans to expand and include grades 1 through 8 by the year 2022.

On the first day of school, LeBron admitted to feeling more nervous than the overwhelmed, wide-eyed students. He described it as "one of the greatest moments of my life."

Principal Brandi Davis, an Akron native, is confident that the I Promise School will become an influential model of urban and public school excellence. She emphasizes the importance of comprehensive support, family involvement, and compassion in the school’s philosophy.

The I Promise School adopts a holistic approach to education, extending its services far beyond the traditional classroom setting. The school provides breakfast, lunch, and a snack during extended school hours, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., operating from July 30 to May 17. Additionally, there is a seven-week summer school program. Teachers at the school are offered personal workout trainers as an added benefit.

Parents of students attending the I Promise School have the opportunity to earn their GEDs and receive job training. Students themselves are immersed in a curriculum that combines humanities with STEM learning. They have access to tutors and an English-as-a-second-language teacher. Furthermore, the school offers emotional support, career guidance, and other essential services to both students and parents throughout the year. Each student is given a new bicycle and helmet, encouraging physical fitness and exploration outside of their often dangerous neighborhoods.

As the cherry on top, starting in 2021, every graduate of the I Promise program will receive free tuition at the University of Akron, thanks to James.

The foundation’s aspiration is to enable more than 1,200 Akron children to attend college by 2029, as reported by ABC News.

"It’s an actual functioning school! In my hometown." LeBron James expresses great joy when discussing one of the most significant moments of his life: the opening of a public school that not only offers education to at-risk families, but also provides them with food, transportation, financial assistance for college, and a sense of belonging.

James stated in an interview with the Akron Beacon Journal, "What it ultimately boils down to is that somebody cares about their future. We want the future to include exceptional police officers, politicians, doctors, nurses, musicians, or whatever path they choose. We hope this school can nurture and develop those talents."

Educators interviewed by Yahoo News have praised the concept and James’s innovative approach. This sentiment is shared by a multitude of his fellow NBA stars, as well as one former First Lady.

Former President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama expressed their pride in LeBron James and the I PROMISE School, highlighting the positive impact he has both on and off the basketball court. They believe that the children in Akron and across the United States are fortunate to have him as a role model, encouraging them to aim high and achieve their goals.

Dwyane Wade, a close friend of James, commended him for utilizing his platform to make a difference, showing his admiration and respect.

Chris Paul, another NBA player, congratulated James for staying true to his word and chasing his dreams, which has provided hundreds of kids with the opportunity to realize theirs. He emphasized that this achievement goes beyond basketball and signifies the significance of James’s actions.

Carmelo Anthony, a fellow NBA player, also congratulated James on the opening of the I PROMISE School, acknowledging its unique and special importance.

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North Carolina Legislature Remains In Republican Hands, Divided Government To Continue

North Carolina Legislature Remains in Republican Hands, Divided Government to Continue

Gain insight into the 46 races that have the potential to transform America’s educational landscape after Election Day in 2020. Stay informed about the latest developments in state policies and the challenges faced by students during the pandemic by subscribing to Newsletter.

According to local media reports, North Carolina Democrats were unable to secure control of both chambers of the state’s General Assembly, dashing their hopes of attaining complete authority over the state government.

The results of several federal races were still undetermined on Wednesday morning, with the presidential vote in the state too close to call and incumbent Senator Thom Tillis maintaining a slight lead over Democratic challenger Cal Cunningham. However, Democratic Governor Roy Cooper secured re-election without much uncertainty, as his lead against Republican opponent Dan Forest had appeared strong for weeks.

Governor Cooper’s education agenda faced significant resistance from the GOP in the General Assembly over the past four years, with the two parties constantly clashing over the proposed increase in teacher salaries. In his second term, Democrats aimed to make progress on priorities such as expanding childcare and early college programs, which would have required a greater presence in the legislature.

According to the News & Observer newspaper in Raleigh, Democrats fell short of their goals. They were only able to secure one out of the five seats necessary to gain control of the chamber and actually lost four seats in the state House of Representatives. Nonetheless, Republicans still do not have a majority that would allow them to override any vetoes from either body, which means that contentious negotiations between the executive and legislative branches will continue in January. These negotiations will cover various issues ranging from teacher salaries to school reopenings to the uncertain state budget.

Discover the essential education-related election races in 2020 that have the potential to reshape America’s schools. Stay up to date with the latest updates on state policies and the challenges faced by students during the pandemic by subscribing to Newsletter.

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New Study: Suspending Students For Minor Infractions Like Cursing Hurts Kids But Benefits Nobody

New Study: Suspending Students for Minor Infractions Like Cursing Hurts Kids but Benefits Nobody

This is the most recent article in ongoing ‘Big Picture’ series, which aims to provide a clearer understanding of the state of American education through new evidence, research, and investigative reporting. For a more extensive collection of articles, please refer to our full series.

Increasingly, schools are resorting to suspending students for minor offenses such as using profanity, which not only has a negative impact on their academic performance but also offers no discernible benefits.

This crucial finding emerges from a comprehensive new study that delves into the repercussions of out-of-school suspensions on the academic achievements of troubled students and their peers in the classroom. While the study reveals that student test scores do suffer as a consequence of suspensions – both for major and minor infractions – the effects are relatively modest compared to what was previously believed. The findings of this study have been published in Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, an esteemed peer-reviewed academic journal.

Conducted by researchers from Mathematica Policy Research and the University of Pennsylvania, this study arrives amidst a heated debate surrounding school discipline reform. Responding to concerns that suspensions could be detrimental to students and lead to disengagement in the classroom, school districts and states across the country have implemented policies aimed at reducing suspensions and introducing alternative measures such as restorative justice and instruction in emotional and behavioral skills. However, critics argue that reducing suspension rates may result in disruptions in the classroom, thus impeding the academic performance of well-behaved students.

Related question: Does restorative justice yield better results than traditional school discipline?

Against this backdrop, Education Secretary Betsy DeVos is currently considering whether to revoke an Obama-era guidance document that called for decreased reliance on suspensions in school districts. It has long been observed that students of color and those with disabilities are disproportionately subjected to disciplinary actions, a concern addressed by the aforementioned guidance document, which argued that this could potentially be seen as a violation of civil rights at the federal level. The debate over discipline has also taken center stage in discussions surrounding school shootings. President Donald Trump has instructed his Federal Commission on School Safety to examine the Obama-era guidance document from the perspective of school violence.

Johanna Lacoe, a researcher at Mathematica and co-author of the report, acknowledges the necessity of suspensions in certain cases, such as instances of violence or when a student poses a genuine threat to their peers, teachers, or themselves. However, Lacoe emphasizes that an increasing number of suspensions are issued for lesser infractions like disobedience. She asserts that being suspended for a non-serious offense is a significant event with no benefits for other students.

Lacoe collaborated with Matthew Steinberg, an assistant professor of education policy at the University of Pennsylvania, to analyze student discipline data from Philadelphia during the 2011-12 and 2013-14 school years. While previous studies have established a correlation between suspensions and negative academic outcomes, Steinberg argues that these studies failed to adequately isolate discipline as a variable from other potential factors. Steinberg’s study employs two distinct models to estimate the relationship between suspensions and test scores, both of which yield similar conclusions. This approach enables them to eliminate other potential factors, such as traumatic events at home, that could account for declines in test scores.

According to the researchers, students receive comparable decreases in math and English test scores when suspended for serious or minor infractions. Furthermore, suspended students show a 2 to 9 percentage point decrease in their likelihood of achieving proficiency in math.

Lacoe highlights the significance of these test score declines, particularly in math, as they correspond to dwindling proficiency and reduced probability of passing exams. She emphasizes that this goes beyond a mere drop of a few points on a test; it determines whether a student is on track for their grade level or not.

In addition to shedding light on the impact of suspensions on the disciplined students, the report also examines the effect that exposure to disciplinary actions has on peers who are not themselves facing disciplinary proceedings. The study finds that exposure to out-of-school suspensions for minor infractions does not affect the academic outcomes of peers. However, exposure to discipline for more serious offenses does harm the performance of well-behaved classmates.

However, one aspect that the study cannot definitively answer is whether the decline in academic performance among peers is a result of student misbehavior or the subsequent punishment. Consequently, Steinberg argues that it is challenging to determine whether increasing suspensions for serious infractions would improve outcomes for well-behaved students.

Steinberg poses the question: What would happen to the academic achievements of students who are not suspended if we were to suspend more misbehaving students or alternatively reduce the number of suspensions altogether? Unfortunately, this question remains unanswered.

Given the relatively limited impact suspensions have on student performance, as revealed by this study, it is remarkable that the policy debate surrounding exclusionary discipline continues to be so contentious, remarks David Griffith, a senior research and policy associate at the right-leaning Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Griffith suggests that everyone take a moment to pause and reflect on the situation.

"I believe that simply sending children home without attempting to resolve the underlying issues does not lead to any positive outcomes," she expressed. "It is merely a quick fix and fails to address the root of the problem. In my view, a more effective approach would involve implementing strategies at a school-wide level to prevent such misbehavior from occurring in the first instance."

On Leadership: Principal Pamela Chapman Is Using Grit, Grace, Data To Turn Around Her Detroit School

On Leadership: Principal Pamela Chapman Is Using Grit, Grace, Data to Turn Around Her Detroit School

This is the first of a three-part series by The Seventy Four, which aims to honor exceptional school leaders in celebration of National Principal’s Month. Please note that this Q&A has been edited for style and length.

Principal Pamela Chapman has embarked on a remarkable journey towards authentic leadership, starting from her time in the United States Army Reserves to her current position at one of Detroit’s most challenging turnaround schools. As a single mother in Washington D.C., Chapman made the decision to become a teacher after realizing that her daughter was receiving a subpar education. She became acutely aware of how one’s socioeconomic status affects the quality of education they receive.

Chapman demonstrated her commitment to education by progressively advancing from teacher to instructional coach to assistant principal, consistently achieving impressive student achievement gains as she relocated across the country. Her daughter has recently graduated from college.

Currently, Chapman faces her latest challenge as she leads the turnaround efforts at Brenda Scott Academy for Theatre Arts, a pre-K-8 school located in Detroit, Michigan. This city has long been plagued by financial difficulties and is often seen as a symbol of urban decay. Chapman’s school, which she has been leading for almost a year, falls under the Education Achievement Authority, a district responsible for the state’s lowest-performing schools. For the 872 students in her care, who come from challenging backgrounds, she represents their greatest hope for a better future.

Acknowledging the difficult situation, Chapman expressed her determination to make a difference: "We’re starting from the bottom, as you may already know. That’s why I decided to fully commit."

Despite the challenges, how do you motivate yourself on those tough mornings?

Interestingly enough, I positioned my bed against one wall to reduce the chance of waking up on the wrong side! Additionally, by looking up, I see my vision board that represents my aspirations and higher self. One picture on it is of Frederick Douglass with the quote, "It is easier to build strong children than repair broken men." This serves as a quick reminder to reset my mindset. I tell myself, "God has given you another day to succeed. How can you make the most of it?" This is truly who I am, dedicated to the work that benefits children, because if I don’t do it, who will?

Could you share your experience of working in a school that requires a turnaround? Do you have a theory of change?

Turnaround work is undeniably challenging and varies from day to day. My approach to turnaround can be summarized in a few key aspects. Firstly, there is a strong emphasis on creating a positive school culture. I want children to feel a sense of belonging and support when they step foot in our building. Our core values should align with the values of our community. For example, "grit" is a crucial attribute that I believe will guide my students towards successful high school and college experiences.

Secondly, teachers play a pivotal role in narrowing the achievement gap. When it comes to recruiting and developing teachers, I focus on two essential qualities: aptitude and attitude, which I refer to as A squared. I seek individuals who are receptive to feedback, possess a growth mindset, and are capable of recognizing and overcoming biases.

Lastly, the socioemotional well-being of our students is paramount. Particularly in a city like Detroit, it is evident that a significant portion of our students suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder due to their daily lives and experiences.

What do you find fulfilling about working in a school?

I derive immense satisfaction from the act of teaching itself. Last week, when a 7th-grade social studies teacher fell ill, I excitedly took the opportunity to step in and teach. It has been a rewarding and uplifting journey. I thoroughly enjoy urban education, working closely with both teachers and students. For me, it is a moral obligation and a matter of social justice. Making breakthroughs in students’ lives brings me great joy.

Would you consider yourself an entrepreneur? I ask because turnaround cultures and start-up cultures often share similar attributes such as resourcefulness, creativity, and a willingness to accomplish the impossible.

Did you experience any challenges in your career that ultimately helped to shape you into the leader you are today?

One particular setback that comes to mind is the decision to relocate from Florida to Detroit. When I arrived in the city, I initially believed that simply being there would earn me credibility and respect. I thought that my track record of turning around schools and making a positive impact would automatically garner support from my staff. However, I quickly realized that this was not the case. Many people had doubts about who I was as a person and questioned my motivations for being there. This setback was disheartening for me because I am deeply committed to the work I do. It was a struggle to experience a lack of support from others. I had to go back to the drawing board and find ways to build trust and change the deeply ingrained beliefs and mindset surrounding inner city schools and the potential of black children.

As you transitioned from being an outsider to an insider in Detroit, what are some of the valuable lessons and experiences you gained from the city?

The greatest gifts I received in Detroit were the people. The community is filled with individuals who bring a wealth of cultural knowledge and perspectives to the table. The parents of my students, in particular, have been remarkable. They are not perfect, but their openness and willingness to join me on this journey have truly been a blessing.

Have you had the opportunity to read Sheryl Sandberg’s book "Lean In"? If so, what does the concept of "leaning in" mean to you?

Yes, I have read "Lean In" and I am a huge fan. To me, "leaning in" is about challenging and pushing myself. If I am going to inspire and motivate others to believe in the potential of Detroit, I must first prove it to myself. When I arrived in Detroit, I had no support system in place, no friends or family nearby. I couldn’t convince anyone to join me on this journey. Despite this, I embraced the idea of "leaning in." I asked myself, why wouldn’t I take this opportunity? What’s the worst that could happen? At the very least, I could leave Detroit in the same condition I found it. However, I highly doubt that will be the case.

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NYC Parents Rally Against Mandated Reporting Policies For Educators

NYC Parents Rally Against Mandated Reporting Policies for Educators

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On Thursday, parents and advocates gathered virtually to demand the removal of mandatory reporting practices in child welfare in New York State. This policy allows New York City school staff to make thousands of unfounded allegations of child abuse or neglect each year, disproportionately affecting poor families of color.

The state legislators had planned a public hearing on Thursday to address potential biases in mandatory reporting and discuss reforming the system. However, the hearing was postponed two days before without a rescheduled date.

Joyce McMillan, the organizer of the rally and founder of the nonprofit JMacForFamilies, highlighted the harmful impact of mandatory reporting, calling it a weapon that prevents those in need from seeking help.

The number of individuals signed up to testify at the hearing was not disclosed by the New York State Assembly press office. The list of speakers was supposed to be posted online before the rescheduled hearing. Assemblyman Andrew Hevesi, D-Queens, and Assemblywoman Taylor Darling, D-Long Island, who called for the meeting, did not respond to comment requests.

The online rally coincided with an announcement from New York’s Office of Children and Family Services that the state would enhance anti-bias training for all mandated reporters. This training will require over 50 professional groups to complete a self-directed online course by April 1, 2025.

Although the implementation of anti-bias training was seen as a positive step by some, advocates believe that the system itself cannot be reformed and should be abolished. They argue that supporting families and mandatory reporting are contradictory.

Mandatory reporting laws exist in most states, including New York, requiring educators, child care providers, law enforcement officers, healthcare professionals, and social workers to report suspected child abuse or neglect. These laws were introduced following incidents of child abuse and neglect that were suspected but not reported.

However, these suspicions can be influenced by personal biases. An internal report from Bronx Defenders revealed that the Administration for Children’s Services in New York City specifically targets Black and Brown parents, applying a different level of scrutiny to them. School employees were identified as the main contributors to biased reports, often reporting based on superficial factors like the cleanliness of a child’s clothing or whether they bring food to school.

Racial disparities persist in the child welfare system, with over half of Black children experiencing an investigation before the age of 18 compared to 28% of white children and 37% of children overall. Families affected by these investigations report lasting mental health and legal consequences, even when the allegations are proven false. Many attendees at the rally shared their personal experiences of being subjected to such investigations during their own childhood or as parents.

"They claim that we have disregarded our responsibilities towards our children, but in truth, it is quite the opposite," stated Desseray Wright, a parent, during the rally. "The systems have failed in fulfilling their obligations towards our families, which is to ensure that our families remain united."

Isuree Katugampala, a pediatrician in the Bronx, introduced herself as a "mandated reporter who desires an end to mandated reporting."

"Every day, when I go to work, my hope is to assist families, not to tear them apart. However, I witness how poverty is mislabeled as neglect and abuse. Our training is inadequate. It is insufficient. Our training advises us to rely on our instincts when unsure about a family’s situation. What they do not tell us is that these instincts stem from racism," she explained. "I did not become a pediatrician to become an enforcer of the law."

For McMillan, this cause is deeply personal. She shared that when she was a young mother, social workers took away her three-month-old daughter after an anonymous report alleging her substance use. At the time, McMillan was financially stable, but she fell into depression, accumulated debt, and became homeless after failing the agency’s drug test, resulting in a separation from her baby with limited visitation rights for two and a half years.

"A drug test should not determine one’s parenting abilities," she emphasized. "[My daughter] was born into a four-bedroom house. When she was returned to me, we were living in a shelter."

Currently a young adult, Kaylah McMillan participated in the virtual rally and shared a poem she had written. Her message concluded with a plea for immediate action.

"Foster care did not protect me. / It tore me away from my mother’s embrace. / It worked tirelessly to break our bonds as a family. / Now, I stand here with a request / to eliminate mandated reporting. / That would truly be / a genuine child protection measure."

DeVos Continues ‘Rethink School’ Tour With Visit To Autism School, Air Force Academy

DeVos Continues ‘Rethink School’ Tour With Visit to Autism School, Air Force Academy

Education Secretary Betsy DeVos continued her "Rethink School" tour on Wednesday, visiting a school that was at the center of a significant Supreme Court case. DeVos visited Firefly Autism House, the school that was involved in the Endrew F. Supreme Court ruling earlier this year. This ruling stated that districts must meet higher standards in providing education for students with disabilities.

During her visit, DeVos had the opportunity to meet with the parents of Endrew, the child at the center of the case. In a later post on Medium, DeVos expressed her admiration for the family and their determination to ensure a quality education for their child. However, DeVos also emphasized that no family should have to take their case to the Supreme Court to achieve this. She commended Endrew’s parents for initiating this landmark ruling, which will benefit other families in similar situations.

Endrew’s parents enrolled him at Firefly after feeling that he was not making sufficient progress in public school. They sued their home district for reimbursement of tuition fees, and the lawsuit was eventually taken to the Supreme Court. The court unanimously agreed that the standard for educational progress must be higher, overturning the "minimally more than minimal" standard that was in place in certain regions, including Colorado.

During her tour, DeVos expressed her disagreement with the idea of minimum progress for students with disabilities, labeling it as "preposterous". She connected Endrew’s legal struggle for education with her broader theme of "rethinking school", stating that different students in different places require different solutions.

The school tour was closed to the press, as it was requested by the school to comply with privacy laws. Firefly Autism House receives most of its funding from the eight school districts that send students there. The school’s executive director mentioned concerns about insufficient federal funding for special education to DeVos, who appeared to be receptive. The school’s tuition can reach up to $78,000 per year.

DeVos previously faced confusion during her confirmation hearing regarding the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and its potential applicability to her proposed private school voucher program. One of the protesters outside the school cited this confusion as a reason for their demonstration.

Firefly officials attempted to address potential criticism of DeVos’s visit early on by emphasizing their focus on having a dialogue with the Secretary of Education about improving autism treatment and raising awareness of the needs of these children and the education system as a whole.

Later in the day, DeVos visited the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs. She toured the academy’s chapel, interacted with cadets, practiced using a flight simulator, and witnessed PT (physical training) testing.

DeVos will conclude the day at a satellite campus of Midlands University near Omaha, Nebraska. Tomorrow, she is scheduled to visit four schools: Nelson Mandela Elementary School, a tuition-free private school in Omaha; St. Mary’s Catholic School in Lincoln; the Lincoln Public Schools Science Program at the Lincoln Children’s Zoo; and Johnson County Community College in Overland Park, Kansas.

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